Full Depth Reclamation

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Research & Performance

NCHRP Research Report 863 Material Properties of Cold In-Place Recycled and Full-Depth Reclamation Asphalt Concrete
Prepared By: Charles W. Schwartz, University of Maryland; Brian K. Diefenderfer and Benjamin F. Bowers, Virginia Transportation Research Council

This report fully documents the research findings from the NCHRP 9-51 study determining material properties for cold-recycled asphalt mixtures for input to structural design and analysis programs and suggested Level 3 dynamic modulus values for these materials for use in pavement structural analysis using Pavement ME Design.

Base Stabilization Guidance and Additive Selection for Pavement Design and Rehabilitation
Prepared By: Daniel Wegman, Mohammadreza Sabouri and Joe Korzilius

The report is a guideline for the use of base stabilization. On page 19 of the report the results of three bituminous stabilized FDR test sections on the I-94 MNRoad test road are summarized. The three test sections consisted of various depths of FDR stabilized with emulsified asphalt with 3 inches of HMA. Anticipated design life was 5 years or a predicted 3 million ESALs. In 2017, after 10 yeqars of service and the application of 6 million ESALs, all 3 test sections had outperformed their anticipated design life for both cracking and ride. 

I-81 In-Place Pavement Recycling Project
Prepared By: Brian K. Diefenderfer and Alex K. Apeagyei, Virginia Transportation Research Council

During the 2011 construction season, the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) completed an in-place pavement recycling project to rehabilitate a 3.66-mile section of pavement on I-81 near Staunton, Virginia. VDOT employed three in-place pavement recycling techniques, full-depth reclamation (FDR), cold in-place recycling (CIR), and cold central-plant recycling (CCPR). Materials for both the CIR and CCPR were produced using foamed asphalt with cement as an additive. A combination of cement and lime kiln dust was chosen for the FDR process.

 From the results of this study, the combined structural layer coefficient for the CCPR and FDR materials was calculated as 0.37. The structural layer coefficient for the CIR material was calculated as 0.39. The structural layer coefficient for the CCPR material was calculated to have a likely range of 0.37 to 0.44. Laboratory testing showed that the performance of the CCPR and CIR materials is expected to be similar. The field performance tests demonstrated that the section of pavement rehabilitated by the three in-place recycling methods continues to perform well after nearly 3 years of high-volume interstate traffic.

Guide for Partial and Full Depth Pavement Recycling in California
Prepared By: D. Jones, S. Louw and J. Harvey
This document is the updated guide on in-place pavement recycling in California. The guide covers all phases of project investigation, structural and mixture design, construction, including environmental life cycle and life cycle cost assessment.

Cold In-place Recycling and Full Depth Recycling with Asphalt Products (CIR & FDRWAP)
Prepared By: Marshall R. Thompson, Luis Garcia and Samuel H. Carpenter

University of Illinois study that examined CIR, FDR and HMA. Study concluded/recommended that CIR and FDR with asphalt products be considered "standard procedures."

In-Place and Central Plant Recycling of Asphalt Pavements in Virginia
Prepared By:

This paper is a summary of the sustainability benefits derived from two in-place recycled pavements in Virginia that used FDR, CIR and CCPR. The paper reports cost savings, reduced construction times and reductions in green house gasses and energy consumption for projects on I-81 and I-64.

Proposed AASHTO Practice and Test for Process Control and Product Acceptance of Asphalt-Treated Cold Recycled Pavements
Prepared By: Diefenderfer, Boz, Habbouche, Jones, Hand, Bowers & Flintsch

This is the final report for NCHRP 9-62 where the authors developed a short pin raveling test to determine when a bituminous stabilized FDR pavement has suffeciently cured to allow opening to traffic and a long pin test to determine when the pavement has cured sufficiently to place the wearing surface.